The GTHA is Canada’s economic engine as an interconnected metropolis with seven million residents — that’s half of Ontario’s population and 20 per cent of Canada’s. As a result of the its economic activity and population, the region is a major source of carbon emissions.The GTHA produces 48 million tonnes of carbon emissions a year.
48 million tonnes of carbon emissions a year
is equivalent to28% of Ontario's total carbon emissions
and7% of Canada's total carbon emissions
Municipality and Sectoral Comparisons
These graphs are from our regional carbon emissions inventory.
Emissions – by sector
The GTHA’s emissions come primarily from buildings and transportation. In the buildings sector, 87 per cent of emissions come from natural gas use for water and space heating.
Emissions – by municipality
Each municipality’s emissions are generally similar to their population size, with the exception of Hamilton, due to its industrial operations.
Emissions – by sector and municipality
Toronto’s emissions are notably dominated by the buildings sector; Hamilton’s by industrial activity.
Emissions – per capita
Hamilton has the highest per capita emissions in the GTHA due to significant industrial sector emissions.
Emissions – per capita, excluding industrial
When we exclude industrial emissions, Hamilton has the lowest emissions per capita.
Durham and Halton regions have lower than GTHA average per capita emissions from natural gas.
Hamilton and Peel regions have the highest industrial emissions per capita, respectively. These two municipalities account for 89 per cent of the GTHA’s industrial emissions.
Durham and York regions have noticeably lower electricity emissions per capita, while Hamilton has noticeably higher electricity emissions per capita.
Toronto’s per capita transportation emissions are 25 per cent lower than the GTHA average.
Transportation and population density
The higher the population density, the lower the emissions.
Durham and York regions have significantly lower waste emissions per capita than the GTHA average. Durham and York send waste to a waste-to-energy incinerator, which would explain the significantly lower waste emissions.
Durham Region has the highest agricultural emissions and agricultural emissions per capita in the GTHA. Overall, this sector only contributes 0.5 millions tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. This pales in comparison to Ontario’s province-wide agricultural emissions of 9.7 million tonnes of carbon.